董英,宋友桂,张茂省,兰敏文,付晓芬,刘慧芳,宁强强.关中盆地城市群发展中几个关键基础地质问题[J].西北地质,2019,52(2):12-26
关中盆地城市群发展中几个关键基础地质问题
Several Key Basic Geological Problems on the Development of the Guanzhong Urban Agglomeration
投稿时间:2018-08-20  修订日期:2019-03-10
DOI:10.19751/j.cnki.61-1149/p.2019.02.002
中文关键词:  关中盆地;地质环境;第四系下限;渭河水系;洪水
英文关键词:Guanzhong Basin;geological environment;Quaternary lower limit;Weihe River system;flood
基金项目:重点研发项目(2018YFC1504700),国家自然科学基金重点项目(41530640),中国地质调查局项目(DD20189270、DD20160261、DD20190294)联合资助
作者单位E-mail
董英 西北大学地质系, 大陆动力学国家重点实验室, 陕西 西安 710069
中国地质调查局西安地质调查中心/西北地质科技创新中心, 自然资源部黄土地质灾害重点实验室, 陕西 西安 710054 
 
宋友桂 中国科学院地球环境研究所, 黄土与第四纪地质国家实验室, 陕西 西安 710061  
张茂省 中国地质调查局西安地质调查中心/西北地质科技创新中心, 自然资源部黄土地质灾害重点实验室, 陕西 西安 710054 xazms@126.com 
兰敏文 长安大学地球科学与资源学院, 陕西 西安 710054  
付晓芬 中国科学院地球环境研究所, 黄土与第四纪地质国家实验室, 陕西 西安 710061  
刘慧芳 中国科学院地球环境研究所, 黄土与第四纪地质国家实验室, 陕西 西安 710061  
宁强强 核工业二零三研究所, 陕西 咸阳 712021  
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中文摘要:
      关中盆地属于断陷盆地,地质构造复杂,活动断裂发育,地震活动频繁,城市建设中面临一系列重大基础地质问题。在搜集分析关中盆地1 000多个各类钻孔数据的基础上,对关中盆地城市群1∶5万综合地质调查中实施的主要钻井和剖面进行研究,探讨了城市群发展中面临盆地形成演化与活动断裂规避、第四系下限与关中盆地三维地质结构重建、水系演化与城市发展、历史时期古洪水事件与海绵城市建设等基础地质问题。研究表明:①关中裂陷形成于中晚白垩纪,始新世开始成湖,经过多次断陷与隆起,形成2个沉积中心,到上新世时湖泊扩展达到最大范围,盆地第四纪以来仍处于持续、缓慢的下降接受沉积过程,受秦岭持续构造隆升的影响,沉积中心由南向北迁移,这将对城市群布局产生重要影响。关中盆地城市群建设要回避断裂交汇处、端点和断层运动的枢纽部位。②建议将绿三门组划为上新统,不宜划分到第四系,三门组的形成时代是穿时的,在关中盆地第四系与地下空间规划的时候需要进行关注和纠正。③城市规划建设要遵循河湖演化的自然规律和区域地质地貌特征,千年、百年一遇的洪水水位分别高于河漫滩7 m和2.2 m,最大年降水量超过900 mm,但季节分布不均,可作为城市防洪水和海绵城市建设的设计依据。
英文摘要:
      The Guanzhong Basin is a fault basin, has complex geological structure, developed active faults and frequent seismicity, which cause a series of important basic geological problems in urban construction. On the basis of collecting and analyzing more than 1000 kinds of drilling data in the Guanzhong Basin, we have studied the main drilling wells and profiles in the 1:50,000 comprehensive geological survey of the Guanzhong Basin Urban Agglomeration, and then discuss some basic geological problems in this paper, such as the basin formation and evolution, the avoiding of active faults, the three-dimensional geological structure reconstruction of the Guanzhong Basin, the evolution of drainage system, the development of cities, ancient flood events in historical period and the construction of sponge city. The results show that:(1) The Guanzhong depression was formed in the middle and late Cretaceous, and the lakes began to form in Eocene. After many faults and uplifts, two sedimentary centers were formed. By Pliocene, these lakes expanded to the maximum extent. Since Quaternary, the basin has been in a continuous and slow process to decline and accept sediments. Affected by the continuous tectonic uplift of Qinling Mountains, these sedimentary centers migrated from south to north, which will affect the layout of urban agglomerations greatly. Thus, the construction of urban agglomeration in the Guanzhong Basin must be far away from the junction of faults, the end point and the pivot of fault movement. (2) It is suggested that the Lvsanmen Formation should be classified into Pliocene instead of Quaternary. The formation age of the Sanmen Formation has the characteristics of diachronis, which needs to be attention and correction when planning Quaternary and underground space in the Guanzhong Basin. (3) Urban planning and construction should follow the natural law of river and lake evolution and regional geological landform characteristics. The once-in-a-millennium precipitation is 900 mm, which can be regarded as the design basis for urban flood control and sponge city construction.
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